AP Chemistry Exam Review - Mr. Smith

AP Chemistry Exam Review - Mr. Smith

+ Big Idea #1 Properties of Matter Source +Mole Calculations 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 representative particles 1 mole = molar mass of a substance 1 mole = 22.4 L of a gas at STP Video Click reveals answer and explanation. LO 1.4: The student is able to connect the number of particles, moles, mass and volume of substances to one another, both qualitatively and quantitatively. +Electronic Structure of the Atom: Electron Configurations Source Electrons occupy orbitals

whose energy level depends Video on the nuclear charge and average distance to the nucleus Electron configurations & orbital diagrams indicate the arrangement of electrons with the lowest energy (most stable): Electrons occupy lowest available energy levels A maximum of two electrons may occupy an energy level Click reveals answer and explanation. Each must have opposite spin () In orbitals of equal energy, maximize parallel LO 1.5: The student is able to explain the electrons distribution of electrons in an atom unpaired spins or ion based upon data.

+Electronic Structure of the Atom: 1 Ionization Energy (IE) 1st Ionization Energy Source st indicates the strength of the Video coulombic attraction of the outermost, easiest to remove, electron to the nucleus: X(g) + IE X+(g) + e 1st IE generally increases across a period and decreases down a group Click reveals answer and IEexplanation. generally increases as #protons increases in same energy level

IE decreases as e in higher energy level: increased shielding, e farther from nucleus LO 1.6: The student is able to analyze data relating to electron energies for patterns and relationships. +Electronic Structure of the Atom: Photoelectron Li PES uses high-energy (X-ray) Spectroscopy (PES) Source photon to excite random e Video from atom 2s1 KE of ejected electron indicates binding energy (coulombic attraction) to nucleus: Ne BE = hvphoton KE

2p6 Direct measurement of energy and number of each electron Lower energy levels have 1s2 higher BE 2s2 Signal size proportional to number of e in energy level Elements Click reveals answer and explanation. with more protons have stronger coulombic attraction, higher BE at of each LO 1.7: The student is able to describe the electronic structure the atom, energyCoulombs level using PES data, ionization energy data, and/or law to construct explanations of how the energies of electrons within shells in atoms vary. 1s2

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