America Builds an Empire

America Builds an Empire

America Builds an Empire The Spanish-American War 1898 What were the origins of this conflict? 1890 Spains overseas empire had been reduced to Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and a few smaller islands Most Cubans were peasants and laborers working on sugar and tobacco plantations 1894 US raised its tariff on foreign sugar making it harder for Cuba to export its sugar leading to unemployment

Cuban exiles in the US, led by Jose Marti, sailed home and declared Cuban Independence in 1895 The Spanish-American War 1898 What were the origins of this conflict? Spain responded by sending a Spanish Army to Cuba to crush the rebellion Entire villages were forced into camps surrounded by barbed wire many died of disease and starvation These events raised humanitarian concerns in the US Events were reported in newspapers like

Joseph Pulitzers New York World and William Randoplh Hearsts New Your Journal These newspapers deliberately sensationalized the news depicting Spaniards as murderous brutes to sell more newspapers The Spanish-American War 1898 What were the origins of this conflict? This technique became known as yellow journalism Their unbalanced reporting increased their circulation but gave Americans an inaccurate picture of events in Cuba

Americans were also concerned to protect their investments in and trade w/ Cuba 1898 a letter by De Lome, Spanish ambassador, was published in the newspapers in the US The Spanish-American War 1898 What were the origins of this conflict? The De Lome Letter outraged Americans by calling President McKinley weak Shortly afterwards the U.S.S. Maine was sent to Cuba to protect the lives and

property of Americans While moored in Havana Harbor it was sunk by an explosion that killed 258 US sailors and injured many others The cause of the explosion remains unknown, the Hearst and Pulitzer newspapers blamed the Spanish for sabotage. The Spanish-American War 1898 What were the origins of this conflict? The sinking of the Maine set off a firestorm of protests in the US Spanish government was willing to halt its

fighting against the Cuban rebels and even open the camps of Cuban prisoners, but refused to grant Cuba independence The Spanish- American War was fought on two fronts the Pacific and the Caribbean Shortly after the start of the war, the US Pacific fleet was sent the Philippines to aid the Filipino rebels in a revolt against Spain The Spanish-American War 1898 What were the origins of this conflict? The Navy defeated a squadron of Spanish ships in Manila Bay Assistant Secretary of the Navy,

Theodore Roosevelt, raised a volunteer force known as the Rough Riders Acting w/ other army regiments they defeated Spanish forces at San Juan Hill in Cuba. US Navy also took Guantanamo Bay Some US Army troops had to w/draw from Cuba because of Yellow Fever The Spanish-American War 1898 What were the origins of this conflict? Other forces occupied Guam and Puerto Rico W/in 4 months Spain was defeated and American forces were left in occupation of the

Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rice, and Guam The Spanish-American War marked the end of Spains colonial empire and the emergence of the US as a world power The war demonstrated the USs naval strength to the world Also raised critical question: what should the US do w/ former Spanish colonies it was now occupying? Answer the following on page 1 in 4-5 sentences, use two items of historical proof (highlight) and explain your proof (underline).

American Imperialism How did America become and imperial power? By the wars end the US was occupying four of Spains former colonies Many Americans believed they should annex them these American imperialists saw this as a unique opportunity to take its own colonies like European powers Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan, President of the Naval War College, was Americas leading advocate for imperial expansion

American Imperialism How did America become and imperial power? Theodore Roosevelt was one of Mahans followers In his The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890) Mahan focused on the harsh political realities of expansion Mahan argued that to achieve world power a country needed a powerful navy A country also needed a large merchant marine to supply is sailors A world power required colonies and naval bases to provide coaling stations for its steamships and to create trade needed to

support its merchant ships American Imperialism How did America become and imperial power? To show America as a growing political and economic power, President Roosevelt sent the U.S. Navy, known as the Great White Fleet, on a world tour. American Imperialism How did America become and imperial power? Because other powers were also competing for naval supremacy & world markets, Mahan believed it

was essential for Americans to Seize control of the Pacific trade routes Build a canal through Central America Dominate the Caribbean region Geographically Americans would control the sea lanes from the Caribbean across the Pacific Ocean all the ay to China and Japan American Imperialism How did America become and imperial power? The US had once consisted of 13 colonies itself

As late as 1890s many Americans felt uneasy about forcing colonial rule on others Opponents of colonialism, like Mark Twain and Andrew Carnegie, felt imperialism violated the basic democratic principles of self-government for which the US was founded Some of these anti-imperialists formed the American Anti-Imperialist League in 1898 to oppose the acquisition of colonies American Imperialism How did America become and imperial power? In the end imperialists won the argument

The US acquired a colonial empire consisting of the Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Samoa, and Midway A Congressional resolution guaranteed the independence of Cuba but even this island came under informal control of the US Cubans were forced to agree to the Platt Amendment gave the US the right to intervene in Cuban affairs at any time. American Imperialism How did America become and imperial power?

Treaty of Paris (1899) Cuba received independence from Spain US got territories in Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico Spain got $20 million from US Significance: US = major world power Answer the following on page 3 in 4-5 sentences, use two items of historical proof (highlight) and explain your proof (underline). American In the Pacific What was the impact of imperial power in the Pacific?

Filipinos were greatly disappointed when the US Congress decided to annex the Philippines instead of granting them their independence Filipino rebels fought against their new colonial rulers until they were finally defeated in 1902 Hawaii Hawaiian islands once provided a refueling station for American ships American settlers built sugar and pineapple plantations on Hawaii American In the Pacific

What was the impact of imperial power in the Pacific? Missionaries were also sent to Hawaii to convert the natives to Christianity 1890s Queen Liliuokalani, native ruler, tried to take political power back from American landowners American landowners overthrew the Queen in 1893 Sanford B. Dole led the provisional government while it worked out plans for the US to annex the islands Dole worked to limit native rights in 1887 and had helped to overthrow the Queen

American In the Pacific What was the impact of imperial power in the Pacific? When President Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii because of the planters actions in seizing power, Dole served as Hawaiis President After the outbreak of the SpanishAmerican War Congress then voted to annex Hawaii in 1898 Dole served as Governor of Hawaii from 1900 to 1903 One of his cousins developed the Dole pineapple company

American In the Pacific What was the impact of imperial power in the Pacific? Guam Guam was an important port-ofcall for Spanish ships crossing the Pacific from Mexico to the Philippines 1898 Guam was taken from Spain by the US during the SAW Today it is an unincorporated territory of the US American In the Pacific What was the impact of imperial power in the Pacific?

Samoa and Midway Midway had become and American possession in 1867 before the SAW 1899 Samoa was divided b/t Germany and the US These Pacific islands provided valuable naval bases and refueling stations for American ships traveling to Asia American and East Asia What was the impact of imperial power in East Asia?

Geography placed Americans in an advantageous position for trade with East Asia separated only by the Pacific Ocean Clipper ships brought Chinese tea & other goods from East Asia to the US After 1898 control of several Pacific islands gave the US greater influence in the Pacific These colonial acquisitions also increased American opportunities for trade w/ both China and Japan American and East Asia

What was the impact of imperial power in East Asia? China European powers had already established exclusive spheres of influence areas where they enjoyed special privileges in the 1850s US did not have a sphere of influence there but had long carried on active trade in China If other nations were permitted to partition China, the US would likely be blocked from future economic activities American and East Asia What was the impact of imperial power in East Asia?

US Secretary of State John Hay was anxious to protect American businessmen and investors there Saw China as a vital market for Americas new industrial economy 1899 Hay announced the Open Door Policy giving equal trading rights to all foreign nations in China Set notes to the other major powers and declared his policy to be in effect American and East Asia What was the impact of imperial power in East Asia?

A few months later 1900 a rebellion erupted in China Led by the Boxers group opposing Western influence in China The Boxer Rebellion threatened the lives of foreigners living in China An International army, w/ US participation, was sent to China where it crushed the rebellion Hay announced that the US would oppose any attempt by other nations to use the rebellion as an excuse to dismember China American and East Asia

What was the impact of imperial power in East Asia? Japan The US opened an isolationist Japan to Western trade and influence when Commodore Matthew Perry landed there w/ American gun ships in 1853 1890s Japan had adopted Western ways and had become the 1st Asian industrial power Japan adopted imperialist policies, defeating China in 1894 1905 Japan surprised the West by defeating Russia in the Russo-Japanese War President Roosevelt brought the Russians and Japanese together & negotiated a peaceful settlement Treaty of Portsmouth (1905) won Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts

American in the Caribbean What was the impact of imperial power in the Caribbean? Puerto Rico Became an American possession after the SAW in 1898 May 1900 the US government established a civil government w/ a governor, an upper house of delegates (chosen by President and Congress), and a lower house elected by popular votes Cuba After the SAW Cuba became a protectorate under American control Us forces remained on the island & American business invested heavily in Cuba

Cubans were forced to agree to the Platt Amendment not repealed until 1930s American in the Caribbean What was the impact of imperial power in the Caribbean? Panama Canal During the SAW warships in the pacific fleet had to sail 16,000 miles around the tip of South America Highlighted the need for a canal to send ships back and forth between the two oceans instead of having two separate naval fleets Isthmus of Panama, the narrowest point in Central America, was the best place to build the canal

At this time Panama was a part of Columbia US and the government of Columbia entered into negotiations but could not agree on terms Roosevelt struck a deal with Panamanian rebels who wished to obtain their independence American in the Caribbean What was the impact of imperial power in the Caribbean? Panama Canal Roosevelt sent a US warship to Panama to protect the rebels when they took action Immediately afterwards Roosevelt recognized Panama as a new country

In return the new government of Panama gave the US complete control of a 10-mile strip of rainforest through the center of Panama known as the Panama Canal Zone The construction of the canal presented as many problems as the political obstacles Construction of its 51-mile length took 10 years (1903-1914) to complete at a cost of thousands of lives and $400 million American in the Caribbean What was the impact of imperial power in the Caribbean? Panama Canal

Because the canal crossed landforms at different elevations, engineers had to design a series of six giant locks The tropical climate posed special challenges: workers labored in intense heat while cutting through dense rainforest and mountains Heavy rain fall caused frequent mud slides Dr. Walter Reed had just discovered that yellow fever was spread by mosquitoes To reduce the threat of yellow fever Dr. William Gorgas of the US Army ordered all swamps drained, vegetation cut down, and all standing water sprayed w/ oil to prevent further breeding of mosquito larvae

American in the Caribbean What was the impact of imperial power in the Caribbean? The Caribbean The Monroe Doctrine (1823) had prevented Europeans from establishing new colonies in the Western Hemisphere Late 19th century and early 20th centuries American governments extended the Monroe Doctrine by intervening in the Caribbean to protect Americas economic interests 1904 President Roosevelt barred European countries from using force to collect debts owed to them by the Dominican Republic Roosevelt declared that the US would collect the debt for

them acting as an international police power He called this the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine American in the Caribbean What was the impact of imperial power in the Caribbean? The Caribbean It became popularly known as the Big Stick Policy since Roosevelt boasted he would walk softly but carry a big stick The corollary was often used to justify sending US troops to the West Indies & Central America Frequent interventions in Haiti, Nicaragua, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic were deeply

resented by Latin American Taft and Dollar Diplomacy President Taft encouraged bankers to invest in the countries in the Caribbean region His use of American investment to promote American foreign policy goals became known as dollar diplomacy American in the Caribbean What was the impact of imperial power in the Caribbean? Taft and Dollar Diplomacy If a Latin American country could not repay its loans on time, the US government then sent troops to make sure the money

was repaid US bankers lent money to Nicaragua but when the government had trouble making loan repayments US bankers sought control of Nicaraguas railroads, custom duties, and national banks When the Nicaraguan government refused to agree Taft sent in the US Marines American in the Caribbean What was the impact of imperial power in the Caribbean? Wilsons Latin American Policy Wilson sought to distinguish his Presidency from the bullying tactics of earlier Presidents, but events

soon prevented him from keeping his promise Wilson quickly sent troops to Haiti, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic to protect American interests Wilson also expanded Americas colonial empire by purchasing the Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917 Mexico was already undergoing a violent revolution when Wilson became President Wilson refused to recognize its new government which had seized power through violence Instead he adopted a policy of watchful waiting American in the Caribbean

What was the impact of imperial power in the Caribbean? Wilsons Latin American Policy When troops of the rebel leader Pancho Villa murdered Americans in New Mexico and retreated across the border, Wilson reacted He sent an American Expeditionary Force into Mexico under General John J. Pershing to apprehend him Pancho Villa eluded capture Wilson finally w/drew these troops in 1917 when America entered World War I

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