Outline Context of assessment in higher education Purpose of assessment Linking learning and assessment Types of assessment Activity What we know ( 5 minutes) What we want to know ( 5 minutes)
What we learned (at the end 5 minutes) Context of Higher Education Decreasing public funding sources Tight budgets Expanding pressures to do more with less Escalating tuition Public trust Increase productivity
Accountability Context of Higher Education Factory-production model based on semester credit hours, certification, transfer, articulation, and student success Limited records that reflect actual student learning outcomes Paradigm shift from teaching to learning
Donohue-Lynch, B. Assessment with 21st Century Tools http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/perspectives/sub.asp?key=244&subkey=2140 Are we assessing student learning to appease a growing tide of legislators and government executives who increasingly question the full impact of colleges and universities on student learning? or Are we assessing student learning to improve our
own educational practices, curriculum choices, and instruction? McKitrick, Sean , Assistant Provost for Curriculum, Instruction, & Assessment at Binghamton University (SUNY) Undergraduate education in research universities requires renewed emphasis on a point strongly made by John Dewey almost a century ago: Learning is based on discovery guided by mentoring rather than on the transmission of information.
Inherent in inquiry-based learning is an element of reciprocity: Faculty can learn from students as students are learning from faculty The Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University, 1998 Todays Learning Today Learning in the 21st Century
Curriculum Curriculum is the formal and informal content and process by which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills, and alter attitudes, appreciations, and values under the auspices of that school. (Keller, 2004) Creating the learning environment
Although shared knowledge is an important component of a university education, no simple formula of courses can serve all students in our time. Integrated educational experience Collaborative learning experiences Promote analysis, synthesis, and evaluation The Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University, 1998
Teaching Involves developing the knowledge, skill, mind, character, or ability of others. It means not only transmitting knowledge, but transforming and extending it as well. Dynamic endeavor involving all the analogies, metaphors, and images that build bridges between the teachers understanding and the students
learning. Pedagogical procedures must be carefully planned, continuously examined, and relate directly to the subject taught. (Boyer 1990) Learner-Centered Teaching How to tie teaching, curriculum, and objectives of learning rather than to the content delivery alone. Focuses attention on what the student is learning, how the student is learning, the conditions under
which the student is learning, whether the student is retaining and applying the learning, and how current learning positions the student for future learning. (Weimer, 2002) Purposes of educational assessment Assessment is a comparison of achieved results to intended goals (Ewell, 1985) Traditional
Diagnose students strengths and weaknesses Monitor students progress Assign a grade Determine program and institutional effectiveness Purposes of educational assessment Formative - to aid learning Summative - for review, transfer and
certification Summative - for accountability to the public Reasons for Assessing Shupe, D. (2006). Toward a higher standard: the changing organizational context of accountability for educational results, ON THE HORIZON, Vol. 16, No. 2 2008, pp. 72-96. Student Learning Outcome
Student learning outcomes should refer normally to competencies or attainment levels reached by students on completion of an academic program Courses must define two specific sets of learning objectives Traditional knowledge and skills associated
with the course Abilities addressed in the course. (Keller, 2004) Abilities Integrated Developmental Transferable Communication Analysis
Problem Solving Valuing in DecisionMaking Social Interaction Global Perspectives Effective Citizenship Aesthetic Responsiveness
Learning Assessment What is meant by assessment often varies greatlyembracing everything from job placement, through student satisfaction, to self-reported gains in skill and knowledge on the part of students and former students. (Ewell, 2001)
Types of Measures Direct Measures- provide clear and compelling evidence of what students are learning Course-embedded assessments, including written work and presentations scored using a rubric Scores on locally designed tests and competency exams accompanied by test blueprints describing what is being assessed Score gains between entry and exit on tests, competency exams and
writing samples Ratings of student skills in the context of class activities, projects and discussions Portfolios of student work Scores on nationally- norm instruments (Ewell, 2001) Types of Measures Indirect Measures-Provide signs that students are probably learning, but it is less clear exactly what they are
learning. Student grades Student evaluations and ratings of the knowledge and skills they have gained Student or graduate satisfaction with their learning in general education competencies Results of nationally-norm surveys (Ewell, 2001) Assessment Evaluation Criteria
Reliability Consistency with which assessment produce measures whatever it is measuring Validity Reflects the defensibility of score-based inferences made on the basis of an educational assessment procedure
Assessment Evaluation Criteria Absence-of-Bias Degree to which assessments are free of elements that would offend or penalize examinees on the basis of examinees gender, ethnicity or other characteristics (Popham, 2002) Learning Objectives Define a course in terms of the outcomes
the instructor expects students to achieve Components A description of what the student will be able to do (verb) The conditions under which the student will perform the task The criteria for evaluating student performance Importance of Learning Objectives
Selection of content Development of an instructional strategy Development and selection of instructional materials Construction of tests and other instruments for assessing and then evaluating student learning outcomes Efficient use of instructional time Ongoing improvement and student feedback
Example Objective: Given a set of data the student will be able to compute the standard deviation. Condition - Given a set of data Behavior - the student will be able to compute the standard deviation. Criterion - the number computed will be correct
Course Assessment and Enhancement Model Combs, K., et al.(2008). Enhancing curriculum and delivery: linking assessment to learning objectives. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 87102. Your turn.
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