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2nd block Spring 2011 Baby Boom Years: 1946-1964 After the war and depression, Americans were confident that the bad times were over, many married couples

started families. The dramatic increase in births during the Baby Boom helped to lead to exponential rises in the demand for consumer products, suburban homes, automobiles, roads, and services.

Baby Boom Peaked in 1957 with a baby being born every 7 seconds. 79 million babies were born. Levittown Year:1949 William Levitt purchased thousands of farmland in Homestead, on Long Island,

New York. He constructed thousands of homes that were sold for $8,000 each. He became a leader in mass producing suburban homes. Levittown Rows of Levittown houses were built using the same

plan, so workers built houses in weeks rather than months. These houses were ideal for young couples because they were affordable and comfortable. 1950s Television Impact on Presidential Election

Americans could see presidents actions during campaigning Money=Popularity Candidates with more money could by more advertising time. Televisions Impact on the Civil Rights Movement African-Americans didnt play important roles in television

People in the north could witness the events in the southeast pertaining to the Civil Rights Movement as well as those places witnessing the events in the north Helped southern blacks unify giving them the opportunity to broadcast thoughts and speeches nationwide rather than locally by phone or voice Sputnik 1 October 4th, 1957, USSR launched 184 lb. steel

ball containing a small transmitter and named it Sputnik 1 The following month they launched a dog to see how a living creature would react to space conditions. Doggy did not return The US felt threatened due to USSR superior space/navigation technology Tech. to bomb us? We think so.. The Space Race

Kennedy deemed race b/t USSR and US the space race Space Race= competition to develop technology to successfully land on the moon July, 1969, Astronaut Neil Armstrong left his space craft, Columbia, becoming the first man to step on the moon I think we won..

Brown Vs. Board of Education 1954 Challenged separate but equal principles Supreme court argued they segregated public education violated the united states constitution Browns daughter Linda Brown went to an all white school; with the help of Thurgood Marshall , the NAACP fought the segregation The supreme court ruled in the favor of Brown and the

NAACP The south was mad about the idea of non-segregated schools March on Washington August 28, 1963 To persuade Congress to pass new civil rights bills, supporters made a massive demonstration in D.C More than 200 thousand people

attended Main rally took place in front of the Lincoln Memorial where MLK Jr delivered his I have a Dream speech Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of July 2, 1964 was the beginning of the end of a long-term race struggle for equality among people of all

ancestry. Since the Civil War, African Americans had fought, peacefully and otherwise, for the rights promised to them by the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments and finally made great strides toward them. Civil Rights Act of 1964 continued.

The Civil Rights Act was passed into law by Lyndon Johnson in 1964 after John F. Kennedy fought for it. The act forbade discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, or national origin in public facilities and services. (schools, buses, etc.) After the act was passed, African American voter registration rose to more than 70% in the south. It also established the EEOC, the commission responsible for enforcing the act.

Voting Rights Act of 1965 Effective since August 6, 1965, signed and authorized by Lyndon Johnson. The Act established extensive federal oversight of elections administration, providing that states with a history of discriminatory voting practices. The act was passed shortly after Freedom Summer in which 3

civil rights activists were killed. Voting Rights Act of 1965 continued. The Voting Act lawfully ended Jim Crowe laws and laws passed to keep African Americans from voting known as black codes, and was one of the final steps toward

black equality. Warren Court Called Warren Court because of Chief Justice Earl Warren Its decisions supported civil rights, liberties, voting rights and personal privacy Warren Court brought in the individual rights of accused criminals and narrowed those of federal,

state, and local officials. Warren Court In the case of Engel vs. Vitale the court addressed separation of church and state. The court ruled that school prayer was a violation of the First Amendment. The following year the Abington vs. Schempp case ruled that

reading the bible was a violation of the First Amendment as well. Established a separation of church and state Miranda Decision 1966 Miranda vs. Arizona Court ruled that an accused criminal must be informed of his or her 5th and 6th amendment rights before being questioned

Critics felt that Warren tipped the balance in favor of criminals Miranda Decision JFKs death on his way to Dallas, Texas, for his 1964 reelection bid he was assonated by Lee Harvey Oswald. In the beginning of his presidency he

was careful not to anger the members of his own party by remaining passive towards Civil Rights issues. In 1963 Kennedy introduced a bill to prosecute anyone that violates voting rights of any persons. It also funded schools money to desegregate. Kennedys assassination resulted in Lyndon B. Johnsons presidency who shared the same goals as him on Civil

Rights issues. Johnson passed the Civil Rights Act in the summer of 1964, which put a end to discrimination in to public places (schools, hospitals, etc.) and prohibited discrimination on the bases of sex. Impact on Civil Rights

Johnsons Great Society In 1964, at the University of Michigan, he gave a speech on ideas for America called the Great Society The Great Society was Johnsons vision for America, it demanded an end to poverty and racial injustice and opportunity for every child.

Medicare Passed in 1965 Medicare provided basic hospital insurance for Americans in the Social Security system for age 65 and older. It included a Medicaid feature that provided basic medical services to poor and disabled Americans who were not part of the Social Security system.

1968 Democratic National Convention August 26, 1968 to August 28, 1968 Chicago Held because Lyndon Johnson didnt run for re-election because of Vietnam War Purpose was to select a new Democratic nominee to run in his place 1968 Democratic National Convention Considerable amount of protest activity

The Chicago Police Department had planned to keep everything under control but failed in doing so The Illinois National Guard was brought in to assist the Chicago Police Department Assassinations of 1968

Martin Luther King, Jr. James Earl Ray April 4th, 1968 Memphis, Tennessee Shot by convict and sniper James Earl Ray Caused riots in over 100 U.S. cities

Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassinations of 1968 Robert Francis Kennedy June 6th, 1968

Sirhan Sirhan Los Angeles, California He had just won the Democratic nomination for the presidental election Shot by Palestinian immigrant Sirhan Sirhan Robert Kennedy SNCC (Student Nonviolent coordinating committee)

175 students from 30 states, met at Shaw University Ella Baker, Civil rights activist, established SNCC SNCC Goals: to create grass-roots movement that involved all classes of African Americans in the struggle to defeat white racism and obtain equality SNCC

SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) Formed by Martin Luther King Jr. and Ralph Abernathy in 1957 Made-up mostly of southern African Americans Advocated nonviolent resistance to fight injustice Organized a series of protests including a prayer pilgrimage in Washington D.C. SCLC

In 1963 SCLC targeted Birmingham, Alabama Public Safety Commissioner would not tolerate protests anymore and used dogs and water hoses In 1965 SCLC organized March on Selma NOW (1966) The National Organization for Women is the largest feminist organization in the U.S. The goal was to take action to bring women into

full participation and to have them be recognized as equal members of society alongside men. They fought for the ratification of the equal rights amendment to include women in the equality of rights under the law. Cesar Chavez Best known Latino civil rights activist Co-founded NFWA (National Farm Workers

Association) Fought for more pay, less work, labor unions and other benefits The Grape Boycott-protested use of toxic chemicals on grapes led to signing of bargaining agreements Fasted to gain public attention, promoted principle of non-violence Silent Spring Wrote the book Silent

Spring Rachel Carson was a biologist. The book Silent Spring described the deadly impact that pesticides were having on birds and other animals. Insisted that human activity drastically

altered the environment and humans had a responsibility to protect it. Silent Spring Continued Pointed out that human actions were hurting the environment and the people themselves. Public awareness of environmental issues prompted an important debate within the government.

Silent Spring compelled congress to restrict the use of DDT (pesticide). Published September 27, 1962. EPA Environmental Protection Agency. Under Nixons leadership congress created the EPA. This federal agencys

mission is to protect the entire ecological chain. EPA wanted to limit or eliminate pollutants that posed a risk to the publics health. EPA continued President Richard Nixon transmitted Reorganization Plan No. 3 to the United States

Congress by executive order, creating the EPA as a single, independent agency. 10 EPA regional offices that are responsible for implementing EPA programs. Formed December 2, 1970. Watergate/ Roe vs. Wade By: Nolan F. and Ben Seyoum

Water Gate It was a scandal that occurred in 1972. People broke in the Democratic National Committee. President Nixon knew about the break in. This resulted in the first resignation of a US president.

Aftermath A new wave of Democratic congressmen is elected in 1976 and there are dramatic changes in the composition of committee chairmanships. Many of Nixon's subordinates are jailed. Political scandals were

termed "--gate". Roe v. Wade (1973) It was a Supreme Court decision. Important legal victory for feminists. Roe v. Wade was decided primarily on the Ninth Amendment to the United States Constitution, a part of the Bill of

Rights. Court's decision in this case was that the Ninth Amendment Results Assured women the right to legal abortions. Prior to Rowe most states outlawed or severely restricted abortion.

Woman had turned to a legal and dangerous ways to end their pregnancy. Bakke decision on affirmative action Allan Bakke , a white male , was denied admission to a medical school that had

admitted black candidates with weaker academic credentials. He was a victim The Court thought that he shouldve gotten accepted but also thought that the school had the right to consider race as a factor of admission. The Court used the general principle of affirmative

action. Camp David Accords & President Carter Camp David Accords is where the president (Carter) goes to take a break from the U.S. of A. Camp David was signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat & Prime Minister of Israel Meacham Begin.

The 2 framework agreements were witnessed by Jimmy Carter . President Carter invited the two leaders to camp David, the presidential retreat. For almost two weeks the three leaders carried on the difficult negotiations that produced camp David accords. The agreements provided the framework

for a peace treaty in which Egypt formally recognized the nation of Israel , becoming the first Arab nation to do so. Israel withdrew its troops from the Sinai peninsula which Iranian Hostage Crisis November, 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran after 15 years in exile and takes power. 66 Americans were taken

hostage by radical Iranian students. They were angered by Americas support for the oppressive Shah. 52 of the Americans were kept for 444 days. They were released on Ronald Reagans inauguration for $8 billion, in frozen assets, and a promise from America to lift trade restrictions. Reaganomics 1981-1989 The assumption that if taxes are reduced,

people will work more and have more money to spend, causing the economy to grow. Trickle-Down economics. Economic Recovery Act of 1981 Reduced taxes by 25% over 3 years Richest Americans received largest tax breaks. Cut $40 billion from the Federal budget Reaganomics Cont. He deregulated government control over

industry. Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act Sought to balance the budget by requiring automatic cuts in Federal spending if the deficit exceeded a certain amount.

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