2.01 - University of Maryland, Baltimore County

2.01 - University of Maryland, Baltimore County

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Operating System Concepts 10th Edition Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Thread Scheduling Multi-Processor Scheduling Real-Time CPU Scheduling

Operating Systems Examples Algorithm Evaluation Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Objectives Describe various CPU scheduling algorithms Assess CPU scheduling algorithms based on scheduling criteria Explain the issues related to multiprocessor and multicore scheduling

Describe various real-time scheduling algorithms Describe the scheduling algorithms used in the Windows, Linux, and Solaris operating systems Apply modeling and simulations to evaluate CPU scheduling algorithms Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Basic Concepts Maximum CPU utilization obtained with multiprogramming CPUI/O Burst Cycle Process execution consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait

CPU burst followed by I/O burst CPU burst distribution is of main concern Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Histogram of CPU-burst Times Large number of short bursts Small number of longer bursts Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.5 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 CPU Scheduler The CPU scheduler selects from among the processes in ready

queue, and allocates the a CPU core to one of them Queue may be ordered in various ways CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a process: 1. Switches from running to waiting state 2. Switches from running to ready state 3. Switches from waiting to ready 4. Terminates Scheduling under only 1 and 4 above is nonpreemptive All other scheduling is preemptive Consider access to shared data Consider preemption while in kernel mode

Consider interrupts occurring during crucial OS activities Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.6 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Dispatcher Dispatcher module gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short-term scheduler; this involves: switching context switching to user mode jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart that program

Dispatch latency time it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another running Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.7 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Scheduling Criteria CPU utilization keep the CPU as busy as possible Throughput # of processes that complete their execution per time unit Turnaround time amount of time to execute a particular process Waiting time amount of time a process has been waiting in the ready queue

Response time amount of time it takes from when a request was submitted until the first response is produced, not output (for time-sharing environment) Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.8 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Scheduling Algorithm Optimization Criteria Max CPU utilization Max throughput Min turnaround time Min waiting time

Min response time Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.9 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 First- Come, First-Served (FCFS) Scheduling Process Burst Time P1 24 P2 3 P3 3

Suppose that the processes arrive in the order: P1 , P2 , P3 The Gantt Chart for the schedule is: P P 1 0 24 Waiting time for P1 = 0; P2 = 24; P3 = 27 Average waiting time: (0 + 24 + 27)/3 = 17 Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.10 P3 2 27 30

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 FCFS Scheduling (Cont.) Suppose that the processes arrive in the order: P2 , P3 , P1 The Gantt chart for the schedule is: P 0 P 2 3 P 3 1 6 30 Waiting time for P1 = 6; P2 = 0; P3 = 3

Average waiting time: (6 + 0 + 3)/3 = 3 Much better than previous case Convoy effect - short process behind long process Consider one CPU-bound and many I/O-bound processes Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.11 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Shortest-Job-First (SJF) Scheduling Associate with each process the length of its next CPU burst

Use these lengths to schedule the process with the shortest time SJF is optimal gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of processes The difficulty is knowing the length of the next CPU request Could ask the user Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.12 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Example of SJF ProcessArrival Time 6 P2 2.0 8

P3 4.0 7 P4 5.0 3 SJF scheduling chart P 0 P1 0.0 Burst Time P 4 3 P3 1 9 P2 16

24 Average waiting time = (3 + 16 + 9 + 0) / 4 = 7 Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.13 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Determining Length of Next CPU Burst Can only estimate the length should be similar to the previous one Then pick process with shortest predicted next CPU burst Can be done by using the length of previous CPU bursts, using exponential averaging 1. t n actual length of n th CPU burst 2. n 1 predicted value for the next CPU burst 3. , 0 1 4. Define : n 1 t n 1 n .

Commonly, set to Preemptive version called shortest-remaining-time-first Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.14 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Prediction of the Length of the Next CPU Burst Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.15 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Examples of Exponential Averaging =0

n+1 = n Recent history does not count =1 n+1 = tn Only the actual last CPU burst counts If we expand the formula, we get: n+1 = tn+(1 - ) tn -1 + +(1 - )j tn -j + +(1 - )n +1 0 Since both and (1 - ) are less than or equal to 1, each successive term has less weight than its predecessor Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.16 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018

Example of Shortest-remaining-time-first Now we add the concepts of varying arrival times and preemption to the analysis ProcessA P1 0 8 P2 1 4 P3 2 9 P4

3 5 Burst Time Preemptive SJF Gantt Chart P 0 arri Arrival TimeT P 1 1 P4 2 5 P1 10 P3 17

26 Average waiting time = [(10-1)+(1-1)+(17-2)+5-3)]/4 = 26/4 = 6.5 msec Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.17 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Round Robin (RR) Each process gets a small unit of CPU time (time quantum q), usually 10-100 milliseconds. After this time has elapsed, the process is preempted and added to the end of the ready queue. If there are n processes in the ready queue and the time quantum is q, then each process gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. No process waits more than (n-1)q time units. Timer interrupts every quantum to schedule next process

Performance q large FIFO q small q must be large with respect to context switch, otherwise overhead is too high Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.18 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Example of RR with Time Quantum = 4 Process Burst Time P1 24 P2 3

P3 3 The Gantt chart is: P 0 P 1 P 2 4 7 P 3 10 P 1 14

P 1 18 P 1 22 P1 1 26 30 Typically, higher average turnaround than SJF, but better response q should be large compared to context switch time q usually 10ms to 100ms, context switch < 10 usec

Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.19 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Time Quantum and Context Switch Time Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.20 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Turnaround Time Varies With The Time Quantum 80% of CPU bursts should be shorter than q Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.21 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Priority Scheduling A priority number (integer) is associated with each process

The CPU is allocated to the process with the highest priority (smallest integer highest priority, generally) Preemptive Nonpreemptive SJF is priority scheduling where priority is the inverse of predicted next CPU burst time Problem Starvation low priority processes may never execute Solution Aging as time progresses increase the priority of the process Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.22

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Example of Priority Scheduling ProcessA arri Burst TimeT Priority P1 10 3 P2 1 1 P3 2 4 P4 1 5

P5 5 2 Priority scheduling Gantt Chart Average waiting time = 8.2 msec Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.23 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Priority Scheduling w/ Round-Robin ProcessA arri Burst TimeT Priority P1 4

3 P2 5 2 P3 8 2 P4 7 1 P5 3 3 Run the process with the highest priority. Processes with the same priority run round-robin

Gantt Chart wit 2 ms time quantum Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.24 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Multilevel Queue With priority scheduling, have separate queues for each priority. Schedule the process in the highest-priority queue! Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.25 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Multilevel Queue Prioritization based upon process type Operating System Concepts 10th Edition

5.26 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Multilevel Feedback Queue A process can move between the various queues; aging can be implemented this way Multilevel feedback queue scheduler defined by the following parameters: number of queues scheduling algorithms for each queue method used to determine when to upgrade a process method used to determine when to demote a process

method used to determine which queue a process will enter when that process needs service Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.27 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Example of Multilevel Feedback Queue Three queues: Q0 RR with time quantum 8 milliseconds Q1 RR time quantum 16 milliseconds Q2 FCFS

Scheduling A new job enters queue Q0 which is served FCFS When it gains CPU, job receives 8 milliseconds If it does not finish in 8 milliseconds, job is moved to queue Q1 At Q1 job is again served FCFS and receives 16 additional milliseconds If it still does not complete, it is preempted and moved to queue Q2 Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.28 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018

Thread Scheduling Distinction between user-level and kernel-level threads When threads supported, threads scheduled, not processes Many-to-one and many-to-many models, thread library schedules user-level threads to run on LWP Known as process-contention scope (PCS) since scheduling competition is within the process Typically done via priority set by programmer Kernel thread scheduled onto available CPU is system-contention scope (SCS) competition among all threads in system Operating System Concepts 10th Edition

5.29 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Pthread Scheduling API allows specifying either PCS or SCS during thread creation PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS schedules threads using PCS scheduling PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM schedules threads using SCS scheduling Can be limited by OS Linux and macOS only allow PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.30 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Pthread Scheduling API

#include #include #define NUM_THREADS 5 int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int i, scope; pthread_t tid[NUM THREADS]; pthread_attr_t attr; /* get the default attributes */ pthread_attr_init(&attr); /* first inquire on the current scope */ if (pthread_attr_getscope(&attr, &scope) != 0) fprintf(stderr, "Unable to get scheduling scope\n"); else { if (scope == PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS) printf("PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS"); else if (scope == PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM) printf("PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM"); else fprintf(stderr, "Illegal scope value.\n"); } Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.31 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Pthread Scheduling API /* set the scheduling algorithm to PCS or SCS */ pthread_attr_setscope(&attr, PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM);

/* create the threads */ for (i = 0; i < NUM_THREADS; i++) pthread_create(&tid[i],&attr,runner,NULL); /* now join on each thread */ for (i = 0; i < NUM_THREADS; i++) pthread_join(tid[i], NULL); } /* Each thread will begin control in this function */ void *runner(void *param) { /* do some work ... */ pthread_exit(0); } Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.32 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Multiple-Processor Scheduling CPU scheduling more complex when multiple CPUs are available Multiprocess may be any one of the following architectures:

Multicore CPUs Multithreaded cores NUMA systems Heterogeneous multiprocessing Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.33 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Multiple-Processor Scheduling Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) is where each processor is self scheduling. All threads may be in a common ready queue (a)

Each processor may have its own private queue of threads (b) Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.34 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Multicore Processors Recent trend to place multiple processor cores on same physical chip Faster and consumes less power Multiple threads per core also growing Takes advantage of memory stall to make progress on another thread while memory retrieve happens Operating System Concepts 10th Edition

5.35 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Multithreaded Multicore System Each core has > 1 hardware threads. If one thread has a memory stall, switch to another thread! Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.36 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Multithreaded Multicore System Chip-multithreading (CMT) assigns each core multiple hardware threads (Intel refers to this as hyperthreading). On a quad-core system with 2 hardware threads per core, the operating system sees 8 logical processors.

Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.37 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Multithreaded Multicore System Two levels of scheduling: 1. The operating system deciding which software thread to run on a logical CPU 2. How each core decides which hardware thread to run on the physical core. Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.38 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Multiple-Processor Scheduling Load Balancing

If SMP, need to keep all CPUs loaded for efficiency Load balancing attempts to keep workload evenly distributed Push migration periodic task checks load on each processor, and if found pushes task from overloaded CPU to other CPUs Pull migration idle processors pulls waiting task from busy processor Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.39 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Multiple-Processor Scheduling Processor Affinity When a thread has been running on one processor, the cache contents of that processor stores the memory accesses by that thread.

We refer to this as a thread having affinity for a processor (i.e. processor affinity) Load balancing may affect processor affinity as a thread may be moved from one processor to another to balance loads, yet that thread loses the contents of what it had in the cache of the processor it was moved off of. Soft affinity the operating system attempts to keep a thread running on the same processor, but no guarantees. Hard affinity allows a process to specify a set of processors it may run on. Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.40 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 NUMA and CPU Scheduling If the operating system is NUMA-aware, it will assign

memory closes to the CPU the thread is running on. Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.41 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Real-Time CPU Scheduling Can present obvious challenges Soft real-time systems Critical real-time tasks have the highest priority, but no guarantee as to when tasks will be scheduled Hard real-time systems task must be serviced by its deadline Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.42 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018

Real-Time CPU Scheduling Event latency the amount of time that elapses from when an event occurs to when it is serviced. Two types of latencies affect performance 1. Interrupt latency time from arrival of interrupt to start of routine that services interrupt 2. Dispatch latency time for schedule to take current process off CPU and switch to another Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.43 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018

Interrupt Latency Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.44 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Dispatch Latency Conflict phase of dispatch latency: 1. Preemption of any process running in kernel mode 2. Release by lowpriority process of resources needed by highpriority processes Operating System Concepts 10th Edition

5.45 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Priority-based Scheduling For real-time scheduling, scheduler must support preemptive, prioritybased scheduling But only guarantees soft real-time For hard real-time must also provide ability to meet deadlines Processes have new characteristics: periodic ones require CPU at constant intervals Has processing time t, deadline d, period p 0tdp

Rate of periodic task is 1/p Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.46 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Rate Montonic Scheduling A priority is assigned based on the inverse of its period Shorter periods = higher priority; Longer periods = lower priority P1 is assigned a higher priority than P2. Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.47 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018

Missed Deadlines with Rate Monotonic Scheduling Process P2 misses finishing its deadline at time 80 Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.48 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Earliest Deadline First Scheduling (EDF) Priorities are assigned according to deadlines: the earlier the deadline, the higher the priority; the later the deadline, the lower the priority Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.49 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Proportional Share Scheduling T shares are allocated among all processes in the system

An application receives N shares where N < T This ensures each application will receive N / T of the total processor time Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.50 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 POSIX Real-Time Scheduling The POSIX.1b standard API provides functions for managing real-time threads Defines two scheduling classes for real-time threads: 1. SCHED_FIFO - threads are scheduled using a FCFS strategy with a FIFO queue. There is no time-slicing for threads of equal priority 2. SCHED_RR - similar to SCHED_FIFO except time-slicing occurs for

threads of equal priority Defines two functions for getting and setting scheduling policy: 1. pthread_attr_getsched_policy(pthread_attr_t *attr, int *policy) 2. pthread_attr_setsched_policy(pthread_attr_t *attr, int policy) Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.51 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 POSIX Real-Time Scheduling API #include #include #define NUM_THREADS 5 int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int i, policy; pthread_t_tid[NUM_THREADS]; pthread_attr_t attr; /* get the default attributes */ pthread_attr_init(&attr);

/* get the current scheduling policy */ if (pthread_attr_getschedpolicy(&attr, &policy) != 0) fprintf(stderr, "Unable to get policy.\n"); else { if (policy == SCHED_OTHER) printf("SCHED_OTHER\n"); else if (policy == SCHED_RR) printf("SCHED_RR\n"); else if (policy == SCHED_FIFO) printf("SCHED_FIFO\n"); } Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.52 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 POSIX Real-Time Scheduling API (Cont.) /* set the scheduling policy - FIFO, RR, or OTHER */ if (pthread_attr_setschedpolicy(&attr, SCHED_FIFO) != 0) fprintf(stderr, "Unable to set policy.\n"); /* create the threads */ for (i = 0; i < NUM_THREADS; i++) pthread_create(&tid[i],&attr,runner,NULL); /* now join on each thread */ for (i = 0; i < NUM_THREADS; i++) pthread_join(tid[i], NULL); } /* Each thread will begin control in this function */ void *runner(void *param) { /* do some work ... */

pthread_exit(0); } Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.53 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Operating System Examples Linux scheduling Windows scheduling Solaris scheduling Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.54 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Linux Scheduling Through Version 2.5

Prior to kernel version 2.5, ran variation of standard UNIX scheduling algorithm Version 2.5 moved to constant order O(1) scheduling time Preemptive, priority based Two priority ranges: time-sharing and real-time Real-time range from 0 to 99 and nice value from 100 to 140 Map into global priority with numerically lower values indicating higher priority Higher priority gets larger q

Task run-able as long as time left in time slice (active) If no time left (expired), not run-able until all other tasks use their slices All run-able tasks tracked in per-CPU runqueue data structure Two priority arrays (active, expired) Tasks indexed by priority When no more active, arrays are exchanged Worked well, but poor response times for interactive processes Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.55

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Linux Scheduling in Version 2.6.23 + Completely Fair Scheduler (CFS) Scheduling classes Each has specific priority Scheduler picks highest priority task in highest scheduling class Rather than quantum based on fixed time allotments, based on proportion of CPU time

2 scheduling classes included, others can be added 1. default 2. real-time Quantum calculated based on nice value from -20 to +19 Lower value is higher priority Calculates target latency interval of time during which task should run at least once Target latency can increase if say number of active tasks increases CFS scheduler maintains per task virtual run time in variable vruntime Associated with decay factor based on priority of task lower priority is higher decay rate

Normal default priority yields virtual run time = actual run time To decide next task to run, scheduler picks task with lowest virtual run time Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.56 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 CFS Performance Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.57 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Linux Scheduling (Cont.) Real-time scheduling according to POSIX.1b Real-time tasks have static priorities

Real-time plus normal map into global priority scheme Nice value of -20 maps to global priority 100 Nice value of +19 maps to priority 139 Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.58 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Linux Scheduling (Cont.) Linux supports load balancing, but is also NUMA-aware. Scheduling domain is a set of CPU cores that can be balanced against one another. Domains are organized by what they share (i.e. cache memory) Goal is

to keep threads from migrating between domains. Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.59 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Windows Scheduling Windows uses priority-based preemptive scheduling Highest-priority thread runs next Dispatcher is scheduler Thread runs until (1) blocks, (2) uses time slice, (3) preempted by higher-priority thread Real-time threads can preempt non-real-time

32-level priority scheme Variable class is 1-15, real-time class is 16-31 Priority 0 is memory-management thread Queue for each priority If no run-able thread, runs idle thread Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.60 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Windows Priority Classes

Win32 API identifies several priority classes to which a process can belong REALTIME_PRIORITY_CLASS, HIGH_PRIORITY_CLASS, ABOVE_NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS,NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS, BELOW_NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS, IDLE_PRIORITY_CLASS All are variable except REALTIME A thread within a given priority class has a relative priority TIME_CRITICAL, HIGHEST, ABOVE_NORMAL, NORMAL, BELOW_NORMAL, LOWEST, IDLE Priority class and relative priority combine to give numeric priority Base priority is NORMAL within the class If quantum expires, priority lowered, but never below base

Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.61 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Windows Priority Classes (Cont.) If wait occurs, priority boosted depending on what was waited for Foreground window given 3x priority boost Windows 7 added user-mode scheduling (UMS) Applications create and manage threads independent of kernel For large number of threads, much more efficient UMS schedulers come from programming language libraries like C++ Concurrent Runtime (ConcRT)

framework Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.62 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Windows Priorities Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.63 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Solaris Priority-based scheduling Six classes available Time sharing (default) (TS)

Interactive (IA) Real time (RT) System (SYS) Fair Share (FSS) Fixed priority (FP) Given thread can be in one class at a time Each class has its own scheduling algorithm Time sharing is multi-level feedback queue

Loadable table configurable by sysadmin Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.64 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Solaris Dispatch Table Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.65 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Solaris Scheduling Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.66 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Solaris Scheduling (Cont.) Scheduler converts class-specific priorities into a per-thread global priority

Thread with highest priority runs next Runs until (1) blocks, (2) uses time slice, (3) preempted by higher-priority thread Multiple threads at same priority selected via RR Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.67 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Algorithm Evaluation How to select CPU-scheduling algorithm for an OS? Determine criteria, then evaluate algorithms

Deterministic modeling Type of analytic evaluation Takes a particular predetermined workload and defines the performance of each algorithm for that workload Consider 5 processes arriving at time 0: Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.68 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Deterministic Evaluation For each algorithm, calculate minimum average waiting time Simple and fast, but requires exact numbers for input, applies only to those inputs

FCS is 28ms: Non-preemptive SFJ is 13ms: RR is 23ms: Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.69 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Queueing Models Describes the arrival of processes, and CPU and I/O bursts probabilistically Commonly exponential, and described by mean

Computes average throughput, utilization, waiting time, etc Computer system described as network of servers, each with queue of waiting processes Knowing arrival rates and service rates Computes utilization, average queue length, average wait time, etc Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.70 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Littles Formula n = average queue length W = average waiting time in queue

= average arrival rate into queue Littles law in steady state, processes leaving queue must equal processes arriving, thus: n=xW Valid for any scheduling algorithm and arrival distribution For example, if on average 7 processes arrive per second, and normally 14 processes in queue, then average wait time per process = 2 seconds Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.71 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Simulations Queueing models limited

Simulations more accurate Programmed model of computer system Clock is a variable Gather statistics indicating algorithm performance Data to drive simulation gathered via Random number generator according to probabilities Distributions defined mathematically or empirically Trace tapes record sequences of real events in real systems Operating System Concepts 10th Edition

5.72 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Evaluation of CPU Schedulers by Simulation Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.73 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 Implementation Even simulations have limited accuracy Just implement new scheduler and test in real systems High cost, high risk Environments vary

Most flexible schedulers can be modified per-site or per-system Or APIs to modify priorities But again environments vary Operating System Concepts 10th Edition 5.74 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018 End of Chapter 5 Operating System Concepts 10th Edition Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2018

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