19th Century Novel: The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde GCSE English Literature THE NIGSTER (EDUCATION FOR THE NATION) tm Unit Assessment Objective Focus AO1 Read, understand and respond to a text. Maintain a critical style and develop an informed personal response Use textual references, including quotations, to support and illustrate interpretations. AO2 Analyse the language, form and structure used by a writer to create meaning and effects, using relevant subject terminology where appropriate.
Students will be able to: Week 1 Begin to gain an understanding of the: The main characters, their personalities and backgrounds. the language used by the writer to create meaning and effect. The relationships between characters and how they might develop. Weeks 2 Understand themes of the whole text and make predictions about their development. Explore aspects of plot, characterisation, events and settings. Develop informed and thorough understandings of the different characters and their relationships.
Week 3 Understand the ways in which themes and characters develop as the text progresses. Understand the narrative structure and genre of the text. Students will be able to: Week 4 Identify key features of the texts form, structure, and language and be able to explain their effect. Produce clear and coherent responses, selecting and emphasising key points. Select relevant and effective quotations to support a point of view.
Week 5 Become aware of key terms and phrases in exam questions. Develop and informed personal response. Use textual references, including quotations, to support and illustrate interpretations. Complete timed responses to sample exam questions. Exam Facts Length: 2 hours and 15 minutes Closed book (texts are NOT allowed in examination) This exam is worth 50% of your total Literature GCSE Section A 19th century novel: Students will complete a two part question. Part 1 focussed on a close language analysis of an extract
of approximately 400 words. (AO2 - 20 marks) Part 2 questions may focus on different aspects of the text, requiring exploration of one or more of the following areas: plot, setting(s), character(s), theme(s). (AO1 - 20 marks) Section B Poetry since 1789 Lesson - Background and Context Learning Question What are some of the main themes of the novel and how do they link to the time period this novel was written in? Jekyll and Hyde From the novels title, the phrase Jekyll and
Hyde has slipped into common English usage. But what does it mean? Discuss the following: What does the phrase usually refer to? An object, a place or a person? What do you understand by the phrase a Jekyll and Hyde personality? Can you think of a fictional character from a novel, film or TV show that has a Jekyll and Hyde personality? Who is Robert Louis Stevenson? Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, and travel writer of the Victorian era. His most famous works are Treasure Island, Kidnapped, and the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr
Hyde. Stevenson was a very poorly child who read a great deal about travel and adventure. A combination of his love of adventure and ill health led him to spend many years as a writer travelling the world in search of a climate that was healthier than Britain's. Stevenson was influenced by the work of Edgar Allan Poe and Charles Dickens and wrote in a range of genres including A little bit about Context Why might it be important to Thewhat novel understand was will
going on during make the timefar period this novel was more written? sense if you know a bit about might it impact our that period in understanding of the characters, plot and language?
history. How Victorian Gentlemen The gentleman was an important figure in Victorian society. A mans social class was one part of being a gentlemen gentlemen were from the upper-classes of Victorian society. Gentlemen were expected to have strong morals and be kind, particularly towards poorer people. But plenty of people saw this as a The Reputation
Obsession Gentlemen were determined to maintain their reputations without a good reputation, a man couldnt be considered a gentleman at all. Gentlemen were expected to keep their emotions under strict control. This forced them to hide their desires for things like alcohol, gambling and sex. Many gentlemen were publicly snobbish about disreputable places, like public houses and brothels, whilst visiting them secretly at night. They were prepared to pay large sums of money to keep such activities private, which makes them vulnerable to blackmail. Victorian London Victorian
London wasnt all gentlemen in top hats and tails. Whilst the middle and upper-classes lived in richly-furnished houses, this wasnt true of everyone. The Industrial Revolution meant that many workingclass people migrated to large cities to live and work. Housing had to be built rapidly, resulting in poor quality housing and slums in an area known as Soho. The streets in the slums were narrow and poorly lit. Victorian London was known for its smoke, caused by burning coal on a large scale. Disrespectable WorkingClass There were some parts of London where most respectable men wouldnt want to be seen, such as the working-class slums. They
also wouldnt want to be seen visiting brothels or public houses. The two sides of the city upper-class and working-class did overlap. Some gentlemen would deliberately travel to the dismal areas of London (where there was less chance of being recognised) to satisfy the desires they hid in public. Religion versus Science in the 19th century Like many writers of the late 19th Century, Stevenson was greatly influenced by Charles Darwins The Origin of Species published in 1859. This groundbreaking book introduced the Theory of Evolution in which Darwin put forward the theory that all life has evolved over millions of years. The book was (and still is) very
controversial and many saw it as an attack on religion. This was a time when science and religion were beginning to appear very much at odds with each other and many people felt they had to choose between the two. There was also a concern amongst religious people that science was becoming dangerous and was interfering in matters which only God had control over Nature versus the Supernatural In the Victorian era there is emerging the idea that humanity itself is in constant conflict.
On the one hand, people lead calm, rational, everyday lives, but on the other hand, a darker side of humanity exists where sexual fantasies, nightmares, violence and murder dwell. It was the rational versus the irrational; nature versus the supernatural; good against evil. This duality of human nature is the main theme of the novel. The infamous Jack the Ripper murders occurred in London in the 1880s which seemed to reinforce the Jekyll and Hyde duality of human nature, Lesson Character Breakdown Learning Question What do we learn about the characters of Utterson, Enfield and Hyde in chapter one?
Predictions Examine the cover of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Consider the title and author, study any illustrations and read the blurb. What can you deduce about the setting, plot and genre of the story? Learning the Lingo 4 minutes Before we read the first chapter, lets take a look at some of the language that will be used.
With a partner, complete the Chapter 1 Mix-n-Match vocabulary worksheet. Dont leave anything blank, use a dictionary or guess based on the root Reading Read and discuss Chapter 1, Story of the Door. Pay close attention to the characters of Utterson, Enfield
and Hyde and the language used. What to look for Remember the three techniques authors use to create characters. Descriptio n Dialogue Action These are known as literary devices, they are the tools used by writers to make characters come alive. Look out for these techniques when we are introduced to new characters in the story. Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd
Mr Utterson What are your first impressions of Mr Utterson? Find words or phrases to describe him. Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Mr Enfield Now make notes about Mr. Enfield. How is he similar and different to Utterson? How would you describe him? Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Mr Hyde What are your first impressions of Mr Hyde? How does the author use description, dialogue and action to convey his character? Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd
Task: Language and Characters Choose either Utterson or Enfield and a minimum of 2 words Stevenson used to describe them in chapter one. Write a PEAL paragraph examining what these words tell the reader about the character and why Stevenson might have chosen those words. Remember to consider what impact these words have on the reader and what connotations may Lesson - Language Learning Question How does Stevenson use contrasting
language in the novel to create effect? What do we learn about the character of Hyde? Key Words: Endorse, decease, benefactor, protg, conveyance, labyrinths, inordinate, condone, iniquity, troglodytic. Contrasting Language In Chapter 1 the reader is introduced to three contrasting characters Mr Enfield, Mr Utterson and Mr Hyde. These men represent different types of people. Enfield is a rather shallow man about town who chooses not to think about unpleasant things too much as it upsets his view of the world. Utterson is a much more thoughtful man than Enfield. He is rational and scientific and a lover of the sane and customary sides of life'. He is very much representative of the average reader of
the Victorian era. In stark contrast is Mr Hyde - a violent, immoral and secretive man who strikes fear into the hearts of others. Contrast is not only used to compare the people but also the places in the story. Consider the description of London in Chapter 1 as Enfield and Utterson walk the streets in the opening pages. Discuss the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How does Stevenson use contrast to describe the city streets? What could Stevenson be saying about London? How does the building Hyde entered contrast with its surroundings? How can contrast create mood? How can contrast convey theme? Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd
Reading Read and discuss Chapter 2, Search for Mr Hyde. Pay close attention to the characters of Utterson and Hyde and how they contrast one another. Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Build on what we know Using what youve learned from chapter 2, add to the character descriptions we created for Utterson and Hyde in the last lesson.
What Has words could we add? your opinion of these characters changed or stayed the same in this chapter? Task: Examining key characters Using your knowledge of description, dialogue and action write a PEAL paragraph explaining how Stevenson presents the character of Mr Hyde to the reader.
You could use some of the sentence starters on the next slide to get you up and running. Sentence starters Mr Hyde The first thing we learn about Mr Hyde is that he is... He
is described as The way he speaks tells the reader that The way he (action) reveals Extension writing about setting Use these sentence starters to write a paragraph about the setting. The TheSetting Setting
The Thestory storyisisset setin in... ... The Thecity cityisispresented presentedas asaaplace placeof ofgreat great In Inplaces placesStevenson Stevensondescribes
describesthe thecity cityas as This Thiscreates createsthe theimpression impressionof ofaa_____ _____and and_____ _____place. place. However Howeverthe theauthor authoralso
alsodescribes describesaa_____ _____side sideto tothe thecity. city. In InChapter Chapter11Enfield Enfieldand andUtterson Uttersonpass passthrough throughstreets streetsdescribed described as as
This Thispaints paintsaavery verydifferent differentpicture pictureand andreveals revealsaa_____ _____and and_____ _____ environment. environment. Stevenson Stevensondoes doesthis thisto toshow
show Lesson Character Analysis Learning Question Who is Henry Jekyll and what is his connection to Hyde? Key Words: Before we go any further.... Chapt er Setting Characters
Key events Key quotes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 This table will help you keep track of the main events of the story. Copy it into your workbooks then complete
chapters 1 & 2. Leave yourself plenty of room for each chapter. Keep your eyes open... In the next few weeks we are going to begin closely examining key themes in the novel. As we read through the chapters keep your eyes open for references to the importance of reputation, the dual nature of man, science and religion, and secrecy.
Learning the Lingo 4 minutes Before we read the third chapter, lets take a look at some of the language that will be used. With a partner, complete the Chapter 3 Mix-n-Match vocabulary worksheet. Dont leave anything blank, use a dictionary or guess based on the root
Reading Read and discuss Chapter 3, Dr. Jekyll was Quite at Ease. Pay close attention to the presentation of the character of Dr. Jekyll. Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Dr. Jekyll What are your initial impressions of Dr. Jekyll? Jot down words or phrases to describe him. Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Task: Examining the Good Doctor
Using your knowledge of description, dialogue and action write a PEAL paragraph explaining how Stevenson presents the character of Dr. Jekyll to the reader. You could use some of the sentence starters on the next slide to get started. Sentence Starters Dr Jekyll
The first thing we learn about Dr. Jekyll is that he is... He is described as The way he speaks tells the reader that The way he (action) reveals Lesson Extract Analysis
Learning Question: How can we breakdown an extract and thoroughly explain our understanding of the characters based on the information we have? Key Words: Constitution, incipient, idiosyncratic, misbegotten, transcendental, turpitude, penitence Whos who? Match up the description with the character
Mr Enfield a lawyer and old friend of Dr. Jekyll Mr Utterson a wealthy doctor know for being experimental and erratic Dr. Jekyll a small, vicious and violent man Dr. Lanyon a well-known man about town and the
complete opposite to Utterson Mr Hyde Dr. Jekylls butler Poole a conventional and respectable doctor Putting what we know to work On the following slide there is an extract taken from Search for Mr. Hyde. Read
and annotate the extract carefully and then begin to think of answers for the below question. From this extract, how is the character of Mr. Utterson presented? From this extract, how is the character of Mr. Utterson presented? Write your response Using the annotations we just did of the extract, write a response to the given task.
Keep in mind that a character is presented through their actions, dialogue and description. Homework: Read Chapter 4, The Carew Murder Case. Pay close attention to the descriptions used by Stevenson. Lesson Symbolism &
Consolidation Learning Question: How has Stevenson used symbolism in the novel? Do I understand the plot and language of the novel so far? Key Word: Symbolism Look at the symbols below, do you know what they represent?
How do we know what these mean? Can you think of any other symbols that might be familiar with? Symbolism A symbol is something that represents specific ideas or themes. There are a number of symbols in Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Dr. Jekylls house is the first symbol used by Stevenson in the novel. 1. How is it described in Chapter 1? 2. How is the front of the property different to the back? 3. Who uses the front door? 4. Who uses the back door? 5. What do you think the house symbolises? 1. 2.
3. 4. 5. In Chapter 1, the house, seen from the rear, is ugly and neglected. From the front the house looks like a respectable home for a wealthy Victorian doctor. Dr. Jekyll uses the front door. Mr Hyde has been seen using the back door. The house could symbolise good and evil. From the front all appears pleasant and attractive but behind this veneer lies a dark, secretive and unpleasant place. Chapters 1-4 Consolidation Questions What is Mr Uttersons job? What does this suggest about him?
2. How do people react to Mr Hyde? 3. How are Dr. Jekyll and Dr. Lanyon different? 4. Who is Poole? 5. What two crimes has Hyde committed by the end of Chapter 4? 6. Where does Hyde live? 7. How was this part of London different to the rest of the West End in Victorian times? 8. The word hissing is used to describe Hydes speech. What does this word compare Hyde to? 9. Why would this be significant? 10. What document is Utterson keeping for Dr. Jekyll? 11. What worries him about it? 12. What does the word sawbones mean? 13. What does Dr. Jekyll say to Mr Utterson about Hyde at the end of Chapter 3? 14. What is discovered when Utterson and the police visit Hydes house in Chapter 4? 1.
Lesson Character Juxtaposition Learning Question: How do Jekyll and Lanyon contrast one another? Why did Stevenson choose to present these two characters as such opposites? Key Words: Cabinet, qualm, oration, sedulously, amities, melancholy, superscribed, disquieted
Fill in chapters 3-4 of your chart Chapt er 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Setting Characters
Key events Key quotes Reading Read chapters 5 and 6, Incident of the Letter and Remarkable Incident of Dr Lanyon and discuss the following: What has happened to Hyde? How is Dr. Jekyll different? What has happened to Dr. Lanyon? What does Lanyon say is the cause of his illness? What does Lanyon leave for Utterson? Before and After In chapter six we meet a very different Dr.
Lanyon. How has Lanyon changed since Utterson saw him? Beforelast he saw Jekyll After he saw Jekyll Why do you think Stevenson includes this character? What does he represent? Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Before and After In chapter six we meet a very different Dr. Lanyon. How has Lanyon changed since Utterson last
saw him? Why do you think Stevenson this character? Before he includes saw Jekyll After he saw Jekyll What does he represent? Dr. Lanyon and Dr. Jekyll The two doctors are poles apart. How does Stevenson convey this difference to the reader? Complete the table below. Dr. Lanyon Dr. Jekyll Lesson Mystery
Learning Question: How is mystery created in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde? Who, what, where? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who said Ive been wanting to speak to you Who said I trust before any man alive
Who said My position is very strange What did Jekyll make Hyde promise? Where did the whole scene take place? Lets read the extract Skim read the text a second time and select at least 3 quotations that give a sense of MYSTERY Any thing vague, secret or unexplained Extract
[Jekyll] O, I know hes a good fellow you neednt frown an excellent fellow, and I always mean to see more of him; but a hide-bound pedant for all that; an ignorant blatant pedant. I was never more disappointed in any man than Lanyon. You know I never approved of it, pursued Utterson, ruthlessly disregarding the fresh topic. My will? Yes, certainly, I know that, said the doctor, a trifle sharply. You have told me so. Well, I tell you so again, continued the lawyer. I have been learning something of young Hyde. The large handsome face of Dr Jekyll grew pale to the very lips, and there came a blackness about his eyes. I do not care to hear more, said he. This is a matter I thought we had agreed to drop. What I heard was abominable, said Utterson. It can make no change. You do not understand my position, returned the doctor, with a certain incoherency of manner. I am painfully situated, Utterson; my position is a very strange a very strange one. It is one of
those affairs that cannot be mended by talking. Extract continued Jekyll, said Utterson, you know me: I am a man to be trusted. Make a clean breast of this in confidence; and I make no doubt I can get you out of it. My good Utterson, said the doctor, this is very good of you, this is downright good of you, and I cannot find words to thank you in. I believe you fully; I would trust you before any man alive, ay, before myself, if I could make the choice; but indeed it isnt what you fancy; it is not so bad as that; and just to put your good heart at rest, I will tell you one thing: the moment I choose, I can be rid of Mr Hyde. I give you my hand upon that; and I thank you again and again; and I will just add one little word, Utterson, that Im sure youll take in good part: this is a private matter, and I beg of you to let it sleep.
Analysis Change of topic from Jekyll Word choice: ruthlessly dismissing/ Jekyll growing pale- noticed by Utterson Deep hidden secret Darkening of eyes- suggests opened wide in horror/ fright Jekyll halting conversation- hesitant to give any information Jekyll does not want to be reminded of the incidents You do not understand my position Jekyll wants to tell his friend but cannot Incoherent- stunned/ blabbing/ rushing of words/ faulting/ pauses My position is very strange unable to tell him? Would be believe him? Cannot trust Utterson with the truth- withholding information Jekylls reassurance does nothing but raise more suspicions I can be rid of Hyde mysterious
Quotation My will? Yes, certainly, I know that, said the doctor, a trifle sharply my position is a very strange a very strange one. I would trust you before any man alive, ay, before myself Grew pale eyes darken How it creates MYSTERY
Quotation How it creates MYSTERY My will? Yes, certainly, I know that, said the doctor, a trifle sharply my position is a very strange a very strange one. The sharpness in Jekylls tone suggest his annoyance. He has tried to start a new subject but Utterson has deliberately dismissed it. Jekyll is incredibly reluctant to share his position with Utterson and describes it as strange. Jekyll is being deliberately
vague and unclear, he wants to tell his friend but cannot I would trust you Jekyll reassures Utterson that he trust before any man alive, him implicitly, yet he still does not share ay, before myself his position with Utterson. Grew pale Utterson notices this reaction. It could suggest a deep hidden secret. eyes darken This could suggest that his eyes are opened wide in horror/ fright Homework
In a PEAL paragraph, answer the question: HOW HAS MYSTERY BEEN CREATED IN THE EXTRACT? Lesson Pathetic Fallacy Learning Question: How has Stevenson used language and writing techniques, specifically pathetic fallacy, to effect? Key Words: Pathetic fallacy, disconsolate, abject, traversed,
doggedly, lamentation, sedulous, mottled pallor, malefactor, disinterred. Reading Read up to the end of chapter 8. What happens? What is the What is pathetic fallacy? Pathetic fallacy is a form of personification where aspects of the environment or atmosphere are given human characteristics or reflect human emotion. It is used in many art forms. Painters,
writers and film makers all use pathetic fallacy to create mood, express a theme or build tension. For example, in a film the weather may reflect the characters emotions. This is Pathetic Fallacy Click The Hitcher Lord of the Rings The finale Lord of the Rings Rohirrim
Titanic Pathetic Fallacy Movie clip Weather Effect created Click Heavy rain Creates an appropriately poignant and sombre mood as the character dies. Lord of the Rings battle scene
Dark storm Adds a dark mood and a clouds sense of foreboding. Lord of the Rings ending The Hitcher Titanic Bright, golden sunset Sunlight suggests hope and optimism at the end of a movie filled with dark scenes.
Thunder, Builds suspense and helps to lightening, establish a tense, nerveheavy rain jangling atmosphere. Beautiful sunset Creates a romantic backdrop fitting for two characters falling in love. Pathetic fallacy in literature Re-read the opening few pages of Chapter 8. What
is the weather like? How does it create mood and atmosphere? How does it emphasise the characters emotions? How does it provide hints about the plot? Pathetic Fallacy Task Write a PEAL
paragraph explaining how Stevenson uses pathetic fallacy in Chapter 8 of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Lesson Lanyons Narrative Learning Question: What role does Dr. Lanyon play in the novel? Key
Words: Whetted, enigmas, flighty Fill in Chapters 5, 6 & 7 of your chart Chapt er 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Setting Characters Key events Key quotes Reading Read to the end of Chapter 9, Dr Lanyon's Narrative and discuss the following: What did Jekyll ask Lanyon to do? Who does Lanyon meet at midnight? What does Lanyon witness? How does this affect Lanyon? What is Lanyons role in the story? Lanyons Narrative
Place the events of Lanyons narrative in the correct order Dr Lanyon invites the visitor in. The man screams and staggers around Lanyons home. Lanyon realises that Jekyll and Hyde are the same person The man is dressed very strangely and acts in a peculiar manner. Lanyon receives a letter from Jekyll asking him to collect a drawer containing chemicals, a vial and a notebook from Jekyll's laboratory and to give it to a man who would call at midnight. The man hurriedly drinks the potion. At midnight, a messenger from Dr. Jekyll knocks on Dr. Lanyons door. Lanyons Narrative Lanyon receives a letter from Jekyll asking him to collect a drawer containing chemicals, a vial and a notebook from Jekyll's laboratory and to give it to a man who would call at midnight. At midnight, a messenger from Dr. Jekyll knocks on Dr.
Lanyons door. Dr Lanyon invites the visitor in. The man is dressed very strangely and acts in a peculiar manner. The man hurriedly drinks the potion. The man screams and staggers around Lanyons home. The man transforms into Dr. Jekyll before Dr. Lanyons eyes. Homework: Lanyons Diary Task Imagine you are Dr. Lanyon. Think about what you have just witnessed. Write a diary entry as Dr. Lanyon describing how Hydes transformation into Dr. Jekyll has affected you. Use the key features of effective diary writing: First person perspective Personal pronouns Use imaginative and vivid description
Include the main events of chapter 9 Explain how this experience has shaken all your previously held beliefs Lesson Speaking and Listening Learning Question: What does Stevenson gain by using written narratives to present what happened between Lanyon and Jekyll? Speaking and Listening to explore, imagine, understand and entertain The last two chapters are written as letters, almost like depositions, recounting the individuals memories about events. Stevenson has us read
over Mr. Uttersons shoulder as he pieces together the strange history of Jekyll. Task: To help you see how this literary device works, in groups of 3-4, prepare a You will present dramatic presentation of this chapter. these at the start One of you plays the part of Utterson in his study reading brief excerpts from of next lesson the letter. use your time The others present four silent tableaus of the scenes described in the letter. wisely.
You will have this class to choose the passages you wish to emphasize and to plan the scenes so that you can move freely from one scene to the next. Lesson - Presentations Learning Question: What does Stevenson gain by using written narratives to present what happened between Lanyon and Jekyll? PRESENTATIO NS! Discussion
Why did Stevenson choose to use these written narratives for the unravelling of the story? What does he gain by using this device? Why is Utterson the ideal person to bring together the evidence? Reading Homework Read to the end of Chapter 10, A Full Statement of the Case and be
prepared to discuss the following: What What led to the decline and fall of Henry Jekyll? are the main themes explored by Stevenson in the story? Lesson - Themes Learning Question: What are the main themes of the novel? Fill in you chart for chapters 8, 9 & 10 Chapt er
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Setting Characters Key events Key quotes
Themes Unscramble the anagrams below. Each one is a key theme dealt with in Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Anagram Theme a humane turn nicesec a true snarl-up escrest italicvision ogod live nepearapac dan learyit Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Themes Unscramble the anagrams below.
Each one is a key theme dealt with in Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Anagram Theme a humane turn nicesec human nature science A true snarl-up escrest supernatural secrets italicvision
civilisation ogod good live evil nepearapac dan learyit appearance and reality Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde themes Create a themes mind map for Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.
evil good Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde science human nature This mind map should be full of detailed notes and images exploring how Stevenson explores the key themes of the novel. If you are unsure of what a mind map should look like, some examples can be found on the following slides. Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd
Example Mind Map Harry Potter Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Lesson - Themes Learning Question What are the main themes of the novel? What is the message that Stevenson is trying to get across? The Duality of Human Nature The title of the novel is now a part of our common language and can even be found in some dictionaries. Encarta defines Jekyll and Hyde as Someone seeming to have two
different personalities. someone who seems to have two different characters, one good and one bad and it is often used to describe a person with a dual personality. In Chapter 10, Jekyll writes about the dual nature of human beings. He says that, as a young, educated man from a respectable family, he maintained an appearance of good behaviour at all times. But he says this was a fraud - no one suspected his true nature, which was at times extremely immoral. Jekyll's experiments began in an attempt to separate the two sides of human nature and destroy the evil one. He discovered that the evil part of his nature was, indeed, part of himself, and therefore, in some sense, natural and part of the whole. Jekyll was unable to destroy the Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd
Science and the Supernatural The story contains two doctors, each the complete opposite to the other and each representing different viewpoints and beliefs. Throughout the Victorian era traditional scientific thought and philosophy explained the real world through experiment and observation. Scientists are usually dismissive of the supernatural, and Lanyon has avoided Jekyll for ten years because of his 'fanciful' and 'wrong minded' ideas. Jekyll is an unconventional scientist reminiscent of Mary Shelleys Dr Frankenstein, a major influence on the themes and characters of Jekyll and Hyde. Jekylls experiments are mystic and transcendental". He is fascinated by the secrets and enigmas of life and the universe and is more philosophical and mystical than traditional 19th-century science. It is significant that both Jekyll and Lanyon die in the story, each one destroyed by their unshakable beliefs. Lanyon by his incapacity to accept a world beyond the rational and scientific; Jekyll by accepting and unleashing the evil within his soul.
Stevenson does not come down on one side or the other but Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Reason and the Unexplained Utterson is a lawyer and therefore he represents the rules and regulations of conventional society and the law. He is more like Lanyon than Jekyll and does not believe in the supernatural. Uttersons scepticism is the main reason why Jekyll cannot confide in him, even though they are old friends. Utterson is a good and well meaning man but his rationalism blinds him to the truth. Every time Utterson uncovers a fresh piece of evidence he comes to the wrong conclusions. As a lawyer he constantly suspects Hyde is blackmailing Jekyll or has some other criminal purpose. The ultimate failure of Utterson (and therefore the law of reason) is evident at the end of the novel. At the end of Chapter 8, The Last Night, Utterson
states that "I shall be back before midnight, when we shall send for the police." But neither he nor the police (another symbol of the law) are heard of again. The law cannot explain the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Reputation Reputation is very important to the gentlemen in the novel. Immoral activities and uncontrolled emotions would damage a gentlemans reputation. If this happened, they may no longer be seen as a gentleman at all, which would mean losing many social advantages. This means that the gentlemen in Jekyll and Hyde value their reputations above all else. Utterson is wary of gossip, in case it reflects badly on him or his friends. He and Enfield agree never to talk about Hyde, and believe in not asking questions if
something looks like Queer Street. Utterson is also more concerned with preserving Jekylls reputation than bringing Hyde to trial. After Carews murder, he says to Jekyll, If it came to a trial, your name might appear. Stevensons message is that reputation cannot be trusted because they are based on appearances. They are the version of a person that he or she wants the world to see. When a society values reputation as highly as the Victorians did, it makes it difficult to know what people are really like. This is what causes Utterson problems he cannot fully understand Jekylls situation because he only sees Jekylls reputationCopyright as important. This means 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Secrecy The gentlemen in Jekyll
and Hyde are ahidden pretty secretive Locked doors secretsbunch, even though theyre supposed to be friends. The whole plot of the novel revolves around Jekylls secret alter ego, but There are many closed doors and windows in the other characters also have secrets: novel: Utterson has done many ill things, in his past, but he doesnt say what The door to neither bellthough these things are.back
This makes hisJekylls actionshouse appearhas shameful, even norblameless. knocker and its associated with Hyde. his past is fairly Jekyll slams window shut on Utterson andoclock in Its never explained wherethe Enfield was returning from at three the morning.Enfield,
This makes reader likely to assume he was andthe later locks himself in thethat cabinet. somewhere scandalous. Important items, like letters and Jekylls Stevensons narrative has gaps thislocked makesin the reader more
ingredients, are many kept securely drawers and suspicious of things that are left unspoken safes. or unexplained. Many things are left unsaid. The gentlemen characters often decide not to speak about unpleasant things so they can pretend theyre not These doors and windows represent peoples happening. Theyclosed also downplay shocking events,
for example Enfield to girl hideastheir secrets, so smashing thesays he describes thedesire trampled a bad story and when Lanyon cabinet door is a symbolic moment. It represents regards Jekyll as dead,
Uttersons only reply is tut-tut. this the breakdown of Jekylls walls of secrecy. understatement shows the gentlemen are determined to pretend everything is normal. Both Lanyon and Jekyll choose to write about their experiences, rather than speak about them. These letters are left unread until the end of the novel, which adds to the secrecy and suspense.
Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Lesson Deeper Understanding Learning Question: What do I know and understand about Stevensons use of setting, symbolism and narrative technique? Setting and Style The story is set in London at the time it was written 1886 and Stevenson uses the city to create mood and to explore themes. In the opening chapter as Enfield and Utterson walk through the
London streets we see the two contrasting sides of the city; one is modern, affluent and respectable whereas other parts of the city are filthy, poverty stricken and dens of criminality and violence. Edward Hyde lives in Soho, a poor and dangerous part of the affluent West End of London, while Jekylls house looks respectable from the front it has a hidden back door which opens onto a dark alley where Hyde comes and goes. This represents Jekyll himself presenting a faade of middle class respectability which hides the immoral activity that happens when he slips out of the back door as Hyde. Stevenson uses vivid description of the misty, dreary London to enhance the dark mood of the story and to add tension into certain scenes. The fog is so dense that is covers whole street, amking them places of secrecy. Fog also symbolises mystery. For example, the lecture theatre at Jekylls house is described as foggy. the fact that the fog seems to have come indoors Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Symbolism Keys, Doors and
Windows Symbolism is evident throughout the story, from the London streets to the characters themselves many elements of The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde have significant meanings. As we have already discussed, Stevenson used the London cityscape to convey themes of respectability and criminality, good and evil and wealth and poverty living side by side and he uses the characters of Henry Jekyll and Edward Hyde to personify the two very different sides of human nature. However, there are many more symbols evident in the story. Images of keys, windows and doors appear throughout the story. In Chapter One the key used by Hyde is emphasised by Stevenson when he enters the hidden doorway, and we often are presented with locked doors, characters looking through windows and hidden entrances. Such images symbolise transformation and most are connected with the fate of Henry Jekyll. In Chapter One, Hyde has a key to Jekylls house which allows him to leave and enter the property without being seen. Utterson is constantly locked out by Jekyll both metaphorically and physically when he refuses to see him and hides in the laboratory. Jekylls Will and Lanyons letter both providing clues to the mystery are locked away in Uttersons safe
and in Chapter 7 Jekyll, detached from his friends only speaks to them through the upstairs window or from behind a door. The only person in the story with a key is Hyde who is himself the key to the mystery - the Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd mystery which Utterson only solves when he breaks down the door of Symbolism Place and Weather Just as Jekylls house symbolises the man himself with its pleasant front faade but ugly and derelict rear, other places tell us more about characters, add drama to the story and explore and reinforce themes.
Utterson and Lanyons houses are neat, clean and ordered whilst Jekylls laboratory is described as neglected and chaotic and Hydes Soho house is filthy and unloved. Again these images reveal character but also emphasise the themes of contrast and the duality of humanity. A dark and brooding atmosphere is set by the use of pathetic fallacy in which Stevenson describes the weather. It is often cold, dark or foggy. This not only sets an appropriate atmosphere for an urban gothic story but also reiterates the darkness that Jekyll and Hyde dwell in and the fog that Utterson cannot see through as he tries to solve the mystery. Copyright 2013 Online Teaching Resources Ltd Narrative methods
Its really important to write about structure, because Stevenson uses it to build tension. Most of the story is a third-person narrative, which follows Utterson. The narrative is limited Utterson finds things out gradually and only learns the truth at the very end. This distance the reader from the truth, creating tension and intrigue. The main narrative follows Utterson experiences in chronological order. This gives a sense of time passing, increasing tension as time goes on. The last two chapters do not follow a linear structure. Instead, they return to explain previous events. By leaving these key explanations until the very end of the novel, Stevenson keeps the reader in suspense throughout. Stevenson uses several embedded narratives in the novel. These include written documents and testimonies, such as Enfields story, the maids account of the murder and the letters from Lanyon and Jekyll. These narratives are pieces of evidence in the case. By including them, Stevenson makes the story more realistic, which in turn makes it more frightening. The embedded narratives are also devices to add to the readers curiosity. Like a jigsaw, all of the pieces are needed to work out the full picture. Stevenson uses a first-person narrative for Jekylls statement, because
Jekyll is the only character that know the whole truth. This gives the reader direct access to his thoughts and feelings. Jekyll and Hyde as a Gothic Novel Gothic novels often deal with human emotion, mystery and supernatural goings-on: Mysterious settings Disturbing secrets Stevensons descriptions of dark, deserted London streets, the fogged city moon and the objects in Jekylls laboratory are all mysterious. Jekylls secret alter ego is disturbing Hyde commits horrific crimes and inspires terror in everyone who meets him.
Dreams and visions Utterson has a terrifying vision in which he is haunted by a faceless figure. Its frightening mixture of Enfields story and Uttersons own fears. The supernatural Jekylls scientific experiements are mystic and the trancendental. Lanyon describes Hydes transformation in a way that seems impossible his features seemed to melt and alter. This suggests that Hyde isnt part of this world. The double The novel rests on the idea of mans double nature. As
well as Jekylls obvious duality, other characters and settings have two sides. In Gothic novels, a double is a pair of characters. Sometimes these are two separate people, such as Dr. Frankenstein and his monster, but sometimes theyre two sides of the same person, such as Jekyll and Hyde. Questions 1. Find a quote from the novel where the streets in London are described as: A) foggy B) empty C) dark 2. Give one example (a quote) of an object from the novel that has symbolic meaning
and explain what it is symbolic of and why. 3. Find a quote the shows that the setting of Jekyll and Hyde is mysterious. Lesson Exam Preparation Learning Question: What do I need to keep in mind to create the best possible exam response? Preparation is important Its important to cover all aspects of the text in your revision. You need to make sure you
understand the texts plot, characters, themes and the writers techniques. In the exam, youll need to bring together you ideas about these topics to answer the question quickly and effectively. To revise, think about the different characters and themes in the text, and write down some key points and ideas about each one. Then find some evidence to support each point. Exam questions Read the question carefully and underline key words Read all of the instructions carefully. Look at the total number fo marks each question is worth and plan your time accordingly.
Read the question at least twice so you completely understand it. Underline the key words which you can use to guide your extract annotation. Example question How questions ask you to think about the writers techniques. E.g. Stevensons use of setting and symbolism. Remember to write about form, structure and language. How does Stevenson
present the theme of secrecy in the extract? Secrecy is a key theme use a range of examples to support your answer. You must refer to and quote from the extract in your answer. Know the exam language Some words come up regularly in exam questions. Make sure you
understand what they mean. Question Word You need to... Explore/Explain Show how the writer deals with a theme, character or idea. Make several different points to answer the question. How does Think about the techniques or literary features that the author uses to get their point across. Give examples
Use direct quotes and describe events from the text in your own words. Refer to Read the question so that you know if you need to write about just an extract, or an extract and the rest of the text. Plan your answer You always need to plan your answer before you start. If you plan, youre less likely to forget something important. A good plan will help you organise your ideas and write a good, well structured response.
Dont spend too long on your plan. Its only rough work, so you dont need to write in full sentences. Here are a few examples of different ways you can plan your answer. Intro Conclusi on More ideas An idea Spider
diagram Anoth er idea Bullet points Introduction... An idea... The next idea... Another idea... Yet another idea... Conclusion... Introductions and conclusions Introduction Get to the point straight away in your introduction Begin by giving a clear answer to the question in one or
Key Tip two sentences. Use the questions Use the rest of the introduction words in yourto explain exactly what introductionwithout and youre going to be analysing, giving too much conclusion. This will detail. help to keep the Conclusion question fresh in your Your conclusion must thethe question mind,answer and show
Its your last chance examiner that you are to persuade the examiner, so make answering the your main point again. question. Use your last sentence to really impress the examiner make it stand out. Main paragraphs PEAL is how to put your argument together. Use short quotes to support your ideas Uttersons face is never lighted by a smile
because he represses his emotions. As a model Victorian gentleman, he needs to appear respectable at all times, which means hiding any emotions he thinks might be judged as unseemly. It can be more effective to use short, embedded quotes as evidence. Then you can go on to seamlessly explain them. Try it How does Stevenson present the theme of secrecy in the novel? For
this task you may choose a section of the novel to examine, but be clear about what section youre doing. In the exam expect to be given an extract, you wont have a choice. Write out the question, break it down (underline key words) and make a plan -> consider including quotes in your plan. Lesson Exam questions Learning Question: How do I breakdown and respond to
exam questions? Exam Question Breakdown Read the question carefully, underline the important bits. Write about context how Hydes behaviour would have been particularly disturbing to upper-class Victorians. Explore how Stevenson presents Hydes character in this extract. Find the key words and phrases You need to think about Think about how
Stevenson uses language and dialogue to present the character of Mr. Hyde. how Hyde is presented specifically in this extract. E.G. His actions, his appearance and other characters reactions to him. Explore how Stevenson presents Hydes character in this extract. Youll need to discuss the passage given, in detail.
Example plan Introduction Its a good idea to use the key words in the question to give your response focus and show the examiner that youre on the right track and that youre thinking about the question from the start. This intro links your response to the themes, indicatin g that you have a thorough knowled
ge of the text. Stevenson uses a number of different techniques to present Hyde as a disturbing character in the extract: his appearance is startling, his movements are unsettling, and he is associated with the hidden dark side of Victorian society. Hyde has a disturbing presence because he is purely evil character with no redeeming features. This makes him seem inhuman because nature is made up of a balance of good and bad qualities. This tells the examiner what your essay response is about and shows that youve thought about your response structure. Developing your paragraphs
Start by introducing the main point of your paragraph. Use Stevenson uses other characters reactions to Hyde to evidenc demonstrate that he is a disturbing character. Poole is left e from afraid and anxious after his sighting of Hyde, and he is unable the to finish the sentence that he begins with And then.... This extract shows that his fear and confusion after seeing Hyde are strong to back enough to make him inarticulate. Similarly, Lanyon states that up your Hyde is not easy to describe and says that he cant specify point. the point about why Hyde is so unsettling. Stevenson is using Then
Explain these characters reactions to suggest that Hyde is so show how disturbing your that hes impossible to describe. The presentation of how it evidence Hyde is particularly unnerving because he inspires deep-seated links to supports feelings of disgust and hatred in those who meet him, and yet the rest your this is not solely because of his appearance. There is something of the original unnatural and frightening about Hyde that is impossible to text. point. identify and explain. Finally, develop your point by analysing the effect of Stevensons writing on the reader.
Link it to the themes Stevenson uses animalistic language to make Hyde seem disturbing. Poole describes him as like a rat and portrays him as digging among the crates and giving a kind of cry. This animalistic imagery suggests that Hyde is savage and less civilized than Jekyll, a reputable, upper-class gentleman. This links to the wider theme that all humans have a dual nature: theres a constant struggle between the good, civilized side and the darker, more primitive side of man. Hydes character is disturbing because it forces the reader to confront the frightening idea that they have a version of Mr. Hyde within them. Its a good idea to show the examiner
youre aware of how the extract displays the themes of the novel. Dont forget to explain how your point links to the exam question This is worth 20 marks dont be lazy! Make the conclusion stand out! This shows that youve considered all the techniques Stevenson used Hyde
is a disturbing character because he represents the evil side of human nature. This is demonstrated by Stevenson in various ways, including his use of animalistic language to describe Hyde and his depictions of other characters inarticulate and repulsed reactions to Hyde. Hyde is capable of extreme cruelty, and the fact that his evil nature originates from Jekyll, a respectable gentleman, is highly disturbing. Hydes wickedness hints at something beyond our understanding, which is truly frightening. Make your last sentence really stand out its your last chance to impress the examiner. If you cant imagine dropping the mic after your last sentence, its not strong enough. Lesson Practice Assessment
Questions Lesson Review your responses Learning Question: What could I have used in my response to make it stronger? What do I need to improve in my response? What you could have used for 3a Did you use your time
effectively? Grab 3 highlighters: 1 for Point, 1 for Evidence, 1 for Analysis. Go through your response and highlight your point, evidence and analysis in their correct colours. BUT! You can ONLY highlight the sentences that are effective and contributing to your answer. You are going to end up with some sentences that cant be highlighted because they dont usefully link to your point or make sense with your evidence. That means you WAFFLED!!! Did you do everything you needed to? What mark would you give yourself? Be honest.
What you could have used or 3b Repeat the process Grab those highlighters again Dont be afraid to be BRUTAL on yourself with your responses trust me, the examiners arent afraid to be. If you catch your waffling now, you may be able to stop yourself from
doing it in your exam. Did you do everything you needed to? What mark would you give yourself? Be honest. Homework Take your responses home and rewrite them. All the mistakes you found, fix them! Get rid of all that WAFFLING! Figure out how to improve your responses now, so you can do it the
first time in your exam.